In German words Zeit, means time and Geist means spirit or ghost.Scholars have long maintained that each era has a unique spirit, a nature or climate that sets it apart from all other epochs. In German, such a spirit is known as Zeitgeist. Some writers and artists assert that the true zeitgeist of an era cannot be known until it is over, and several have declared that only artists or philosophers can adequately explain it. It is a useful addition in English language from the first half of 1800s.
In short, this is the general intellectual, moral, and cultural climate of an era or spirit of a generation or a period of time.
His songs perfectly captured the zeitgeist of 1960s America.
If you want to understand the artistic zeitgeist of a particular era, you only have to look at the politics, movies, fashion, and music of that time.